The Protestant community
The creation of the Anglican Church is connected to the character of the English King Henry VIII (1509- 1547). He initially opposed Luther’s reforms, which is why the Pope Clement VII gave him the title Defensor fidei (defender of the faith). (http://anglican.org/) The conflict broke with Rome when the Pope refused to grant king a divorce from the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon, to marry Anne Boleyn. Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, approved the king’s second marriage, so the Pope anathematized them both. In return, the king, declared himself the head of the Church of England in 1534 with the Act of royal supremacy. He issued Act of six articles, in which he was hard on Protestantism and still tried to preserve the Roman Catholic Church. (Longenecker) During the reign of Henry VIII son, Edward VI, some sort of reformation has been conducted in the church of England: Cranmer wrote Forty-two Articles, mostly in influenced by Calvinism, for the act have rejected clerical celibacy and role of religious images in place of worship, have introduced a national English language instead of Latin, while preserving the hierarchical system within the church, and the liturgical services were set in the Book of common prayer by Cranmer.
There are three levels of the church In England: high, low and broad church. The High Church consists of the more conservative highest layers and hierarchy of the church, the Low Church nurtures Puritanism and inclines to Protestantism and it represents the most of the middle class, while the Broad Church has a tendency toward liberal Protestantism. Tractarians or Ritualist are in favor of doctrine closer to Roman Catholic theology and practice (Newman, Manning). (churchofengland.org)
The term Calvinism denotes Christian doctrine of John Calvin who laid the foundations of the system of doctrine and practice based on Scripture and Christian tradition.
Calvinism is called Reformed theology in the European environment, while it features Presbyterianism as a system of church administration. The foundation of Calvinistic doctrine is summarized in the words of the Athanasian Creed: “We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the persons, nor dividing the substance. For the Father is one person, the Son is another, and the Holy Spirit is still another”
Calvinism corresponds with: social, ethical, political, economic, and most importantly – the religious aspects of life – and offers answers and provides guidance in these areas. It is a comprehensive system of Christian teachings, which connects spirituality with the company.
Calvinist theology bases its teaching on the Scriptures and inherits the good practice of the Church, from the early days to the present. Christian doctrine, heritage and practice of the Church, with its foundation in biblical revelation, are parts of Calvinism. (Piper, 2014)
Baptists are a Christian community that rejects the baptism of children, and recognizes adult baptism by immersion. They re-baptize (Gr. Ἀναβαπτίζw: re-immerse, re-christen) those converting from other Christian communities, and reject the most Catholic sacraments and rituals. The worship consists of reading biblical texts that Baptists freely interpret. Therefore they are divided into a large number of denominations. They were created around the same time in England and North America between 1630 and 1640. Their roots are in Anabaptism of independents (General Baptists) and Puritans (Regular Baptists) in England, who requested baptism by immersion and represented Calvinist predestination. At the same time the English emigrants in North America founded the community of Regular Baptists in 1639, led by Puritan preacher Roger Williams of Providence (Rhode Island). The first Baptist Church was founded in Philadelphia in 1707. The establishment of the American Baptist upbringing Society (1888) created a Baptist university in Chicago, which was richly endowed by the Baptist John Rockefeller. By the beginning of XIX century their evangelical zeal made them the largest Protestant community in the US. The origin of the European baptism was the German Baptist municipality J. G. Oncken in Hamburg (1843), from where it spread to Austro-Hungarian Empire. (clarifyingchristianity.com)
The most important reach of reformist communities is that they have managed to force the Roman Catholic Church to change, to desist from the previous practice. In time, the Roman Catholic Church has rejected all negative it was accused for. There’s only papal primacy left, which is still an actual topic.
http://anglican.org/church/ChurchHistory.html Web. 23. 7. 2015
Longenecker, Dwight, What Catholics Must Understand about Anglicanism, http://www.catholic.com/magazine/articles/what-catholics-must-understand-about-anglicanism Web 23. 7. 2015
https://www.churchofengland.org/our-faith/being-an-anglican/anglican.aspx Web. 23. 7. 2015
Piper, John, What Is Calvinism? http://www.desiringgod.org/interviews/what-is-calvinism, Web 23. 7. 2015
http://www.clarifyingchristianity.com/get_wet.shtml Web. 23. 7. 2015
Dr. Daniel James Grace